Jumat, 02 Januari 2015

Lorong Hati

Tak pernah 'ku inginkan bahwa hati kembali bertawajah pada ingatan masa lalu
Namun ia kembali memutar arah, menemukan rona ingatan dan sebuah wajah
Ia jemput resah dan tawa yang tersisa
Demi sebuah kisah,

Tak ada sapa apalagi kata
Ingatan yang terbelenggu
Ingatan yang bangkit dari layu
Ingatan yang menari dari permukaan gambar, tak berkanvas.
Ada warna
Ada harap
dan ada cemas,
Ingatan yang kembali ke lorong waktu,
dan pulang ke luruh hati.

Dusun Curup, 2/1/2015. Pukul 3.01

Selasa, 16 Juli 2013

2014: Will the Islamic Parties Fall Out?


Islam is not politics, but Islam provides values and spirits to political activites. When Islam is interpreted  as a political values, Islam will be a ceremonial activities. It will reduce the meaning of Islam. Essentially it is a part of political piety on muslim’s view. In this context PKS (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera), one of islamic parties in Indonesia, has declared that they are a representation of muslim party in Indonesia. It makes the PKS confident with using islamic symbols—moral, piousness, and religious—in political campaign.

In fact, an unique trend indicated that political choice does not have a strong correlation to religious piety. It was proved by several studies on islamic politics and general elections in Indonesia--for example, general election in 2004 and 2009,  in West Sumatera, shows the decreasing of islamic parties electability. The reason is that based on society’s mind the consideration of political choice is not only religious values, but also pragmatic foundations such as track record, responbility, and contribution of the political contestant. In general election, principally the islamic parties is not quite to campaign and attract the constituent through the use of islamic symbols. It has been failure to represent that them is islamic representation.
Greg Fealy (2005) rises a question: if a society becomes more islamic, will its politics follow suit? If there are growing numbers of Muslim praying in mosques, will there inevitably be more islamic politicians in parliement and will their agenda be more exclusively Islamic? Indonesia has indicated an unique phenomena in which the piety does not correlate to the success of islamic parties in general election. Why did the fact exist in Indonesia?

2014: The Rationality Years
Robert Grafstein (1999: 13) defines the rationality as the maximization of conditional expected utility. It is human’s nature. Everyone in any places always efforts to maximize their utility. Everyday they compete within pursuit of happiness. It influences to various aspects of life—politics, economy, and law.

The maximization of utility in political activities, in fact, emerges the particular political choice. It can be seen from the trend of general election in which the constituents tends to choose the legislative, executive candidates based on pragmatic consideration such as the political performance, and their contribution to constituent. Thus,  the religious symbols adhering to the islamic parties will be ignored. This trend will increase when the islamic parties fail to represent that they are a party which have several program to make the ummāh prosperous.

Latedays, the scandals of PKS—corruption cases—make the elactability of islamic party alighted slightly. Actually, it is a real fact to prove the assumption. Theoritically, the alighted-performance of islamic parties—PKS (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera—exactly is coused by constituent’s consciousness which believe that pragmatic foundation of choice is important things.

David Hodgson (2012) explains that consciousness is a pillar of human’s free will. It is need to make a decision real. In this context, the decreasing elactability of islamic parties such as PKS can be understood. Thereby in 2014 the constituents will be more rational. They will be genious voters. It is not easy for political contestants—political parties—to get a vote if they do not have a good commitment, and track record.

The Return of Moral Politics
In political practise, does the piety exist there? In Indonesia the political act is indetically to transactional politics. The politics’ rationality conducted the goal like power, and throne is more important than moral values. It is effect of liberal democracy in which the general election is defined as emerging the power, and accession. In this context, then, Jacques Ranciére declared that politics is an object of scandals (1999:xii). The voters in this condition is only defined as commodites. They—the voters—can essentially buy.

The political action in the general election like in Indonesia has became a new product of the capitalistic mind. The moral as goal in politics has been avoided. Finally, the trust to politician decreases radically. In this trend, political parties are agent constructing the dirty politics. As its result, the pseudo-democracy rises as global phenomena in which money, capital on economics perspective, determines the culture of politics.

Thus, capital exercises its power purely trough socio-economic relations, without needing to become a universal object of reflection. In democracy party, capital, being a benevolent despot, appers to permit freedom of thought, for thought itself is barely able to compromise its power. Capital—money—makes the democracy especially in Indonesia premature as political system. The democracy in that condition only can produce hypocritical elite. Corruptors, and mafiaso are the son of that trend.

The voters react agains the hypocritical politician. They only want the money, but they cannot give up their vote. It is an authomatical reaction when the politics becomes dirty. According to James C. Scott’s theory, it, perhaps, is silent opposition to the dirty democracy. The constetant tends to be joker by the voters. This phenomen is bad for democracy building. Finally, it is important to reform, and revolt the bad habits—money politics, corruption, and other scandals. Returning to moral politics is absolutely important in order to make good, and health democracy.[]

* Author and Researcher at Puslit I.A.I.N Imam Bonjol, Padang

Kamis, 30 Agustus 2012

Islamic Economics: an Overview

Muh. Sholihin| Independent Researcher on Islamic Economics

Islam isnot economics, and economics isnot Islam.
--Muh. Sholihin--

Indeed, Islamic economics isnot new economics. Because of positivism-economics, Islam economics never had admited as a economic system. It is very different with positivism-economics. For instance, Islamic economics is as a moral economics, Islam economics has gradual epistemology, and Islamic economics is a hard critic for the other economic system. It will elaborate in the paper.
As a moral economics, Islamic economics corrolates with questions—how, what, and why.  It means that islamic economics is tend to vertical relationship—among God and humankind--and also horizontal association—among humankind. Simply, the main goal of islamic economics carry out falah concept—in world or next life. There is an equipoise. It isnot only to took contentment, but consider the big goal in the next life—akhirath.
If the epistemology of economics base on empiricism, and rationalism. Islamic economics is enough different with. Empiricism as the main positivism-economics foundation always consideres to the fact. Falsificationism and justificationism are the common logical used by positivism-economics. Even so Islamic economics believes that the common sources of Islamic economics as a science are two sources—empirical and revelation—hadith and quran. Different in epistemology, it will be different in view economics and all of problem economics.
Islamic economics is a hard critic for the other economics systems—capitalism, socialism. In islamic economics thought, it is popular as alternative-school of the thought. One of hard islamic economics critics to capitalism is about the asumption. If economics views that the core economy problem is source scarcity, even so human desirabilty isnot edge. Islamic economics has habit of that core economy problem is income distribution spoiled.
Thus islamic economics and the other economics—capitalism, socialism—are very distinct. Both islamic economics and economics cannot unite each others. In the context, islamic economics in the first reason to perform is to critic and fix the weak economics system.[]      

Minggu, 03 Juni 2012

Socialism; An Overview

Muh. Sholihin
(Novelist| An Independent Researchers of Islamic Economics)

Some people think you can change the world without taking power. No, they argue, you must not even think about trying to make use of the state.

--Michael A. Lebowitz--

COMMUNISM is the socialism ultimate goal—society without class. It is real socialism. The Indicators of real socialism are self-realization or welfare, political influence, social status (E. Roemer, 1994). Those are the true of communism. In other hand, it can be seen that the object of communism is very different with capitalism object. If communism effort to blew down the old regime—capitalism class—to build the new regime—goverment by proletariat, capitalism stay on individualism—from individu to individu. To undestand framework and contents of socialism, it is important to describe the indicator of real socialism.
According to E. Roemer (1994) that self-realization is the development and aplication of an individual’s talents in a way that gives meaning of life. It means that everyone—individual, or group—can be named as actual person if the life, which is done, gives the meaning for self and actualize individual’s talents. It is really a spefically marxist conception of human flourishing (1994: 11). Study deeply, it bring to understand the philosophical core which is being reason for marxist conception of human flourishing. Exactly, it is a representation from human needs to get happiness and comfortable in the life. As which was said by John Rawl’s notion that to real life, or life plan every one must be in ejoying one’s family and friend, eating fine meals, and counting blades of grass. Simply, the quality life is depend on happiness and getting chance to actualize individual’s talent.
Other character is political influence. Indeed, socialism is not only framework in getting self-realization but also values in political system. This one can be seen from socialism doctrine that the object of socialism is to transform a regime base on  socialism interest--to end capitalism class. In application, political influences have some ways to construct a political socialism system. First, constitued the majority of society. Collective values establish a fixed character in society which produces egalitarian people. They are easy going to class existance in social structure. All are one—peasants, traders, and labours. Second, produced the wealth of society. Economic resources by state—nationalization. In state mind, the prosperity cannot spread with market mechanism, but only realize with state intervention. State exactly distributed the all of economic sources and is not any one which can master dominantly economic sources.
In the end real character of socialism is status social. It means that socialism makes egalitarianis famous as a great value in socialism structure. The philosopical reason why status social is a indicator for real socialism is that social status come from abolishing private ownership as againts to capitalism. Marxist, who is popularizing socialism as economic-political system, views that core of explotation in economic activities is because of private ownership in capitalism system and was believed a good solution for human desirable.  However, the question is what socialism success today?   

Measure Socialist Ideas Success
            Wrote Ludwig Von Mises that socialism is the watchword and the catchword of our day. The socialist idea dominates the modern spirit. The masses approve of it, it express the thoughts and feelings of all; it has set its seal upon our time. When history comes to tell our story it will write above the chapter The Epoch of Socialism (Mises, 1959). Socialism exactly isnot success to become a world structure—economic system. But it easy sees that socialism in many state, especially in depeloved country becomes a spirit influencing the world, today. How it is be proved?
Ludwig van Mises attested to that socialism has not created a society which can be said to represent its ideal. But for more than a generation the policies of civilized nations have been directed towards nothing less than gradual realization of socialism (1959, 25). Actually, in recent years, many nations have sought to achieve socialism, in its fullest sense, at a single stroke (1959). Russian Bolshevism is a nation where socialism  was proved still life. That it is be strong  wasnot because of Soviets’ artillery and machine-guns but the fact which whole world receives its ideal sympathetically. The sympatic ideal appearing in the several nations—Rusia—had shown that the world today isnot in good condition—bad competition among nations, capitalism hegemony, and economic war. Lately, the world society had felt bad economic system born by capitalism. Social-economic gap, and new-colonialism expanded into the third; it is not realized by many people. However, the bad feeling was slowly realized by them feeling that conditions. In moderation, if socialism in modern world becomes a spirit for most of people bearing witness to desctruction caused by individualism spirit thaught by capitalism.
Interestingly, the socialism spirit spreading in some nations is only abstract values and not as real system of economic. Even so, it is a great thing for lack political system as socialism. Called as lack political system, in the socialism history, that socialism had been defeated since the cold war in the middle of 19s. Since the time, socialism was only as defeated-system and hadnot had attractive energy to construct world economics. In addition, several people had been named that condition by the dead of socialism. Inversely, even so modernist, who never believe or is doubt with capitalism, looked for old spirit which was lost when capitalism masters widely the life. Socialism spirit was found and afterwards becomes critical awareness.

Shortly, the socialism history is ploletarian history. It is ever becoming a patronage for class histories, when communism regime had mastered several of nation—Rusia, Chinese, Vietnam—but in the line time, capitalism regime had eliminated socialism in world economic structure—free market regime, liberal economics, anti-protectionism, and non-interventionism. It makes hubbub. Many nations—Rusia, Chinese, and North Korea, finally, they recover socialism and make it as a economic and political system. Simply, today in several countries, socialism is being an idealism and latent spirit.[]

Senin, 02 Januari 2012

Gemercik Api dari Dua Kutub yang Beradu

Judul                  :      Api Paderi
Penulis               :      Muhammad Sholihin
Penerbit              :      Narasi
Cetak                  :      Februari 2010
Tebal                  :      215 Halaman
Peresensi           :      Abdullah Khusairi*

DUA KUTUB. Dimana pun itu ada. Termasuk dalam agama dan budaya. Kinipun terjadi begitu, pro kontra Kongres Kebudayaan Minangkabau (KKM) adalah dua kutub yang beradu. Kutub yang sulit bertemu. Karenanya, membaca mempelajari dua kutub dan mempertemukannya kadang menjadi sia-sia jika tidak dari sudut yang pas.
Buku ini, lahir dari seorang penulis muda asal Ranahminang yang mengaku baru masuk ranah sastra. Ia berhasil menjalin dua kutub tersebut dalam sebuah cerita. Penulis novel ini berani menulis novel setelah tunak di Jogja sana. Novel lahir setelah ia jauh dari objek yang dituliskannya. 
Begitulah, akhirnya, setting tempo doeloe Nagari Paninjauan di pinggang gunung menjadi bagian penting dari narasi yang terbangun. Lalu dengan "memanfaatkan" perdebatan dua kutub antara kaum paderi dengan kaum adat, penulis novel ini menghadirkan kisah-kisah lama dengan baik. 
Perseteruan kaum paderi dengan kaum adat sudah menjadi cerita baik dalam khazanah pemikiran Islam modern, sejarah pra kemerdekaan, maupun sejarah Islam secara umum. Cerita heroik ini berawal dari pembaruan di Ranahminang dengan masuknya gerakan Wahabi.
Cerita heroik Harimau Nan Salapan dalam gerakan pemurnian Islam sebuah episode sejarah yang melekat dan memiliki hubung kait dengan titik prakemerdekaan. Ada tumbuh semangat perlawanan untuk lebih maju dan memerdekakan diri dari kungkungan kemapanan. Di sinilah, jika kita merenunginya, seakan-akan mustahil, Tuanku Nan Renceh dari Kamang Bukitinggi yang begitu teganya membunuh "eteknya" sendiri, karena tidak mau berhenti dari mengunyah sirih. Begitulah kerasnya “perang” terhadap Takhayul Bid'ah dan Churafat (TBC) di Ranahminang menjadi sebuah gerakan yang menimbulkan konflik panas. Memercik api.
Serpihan sejarah Kaum Paderi dengan balutan romantika, konflik, adat, budaya, agama, paling tidak mengingatkan kita bahwa hidup memang selalu berpagut pada cara pandang terhadap kehidupan. Keyakinan dan kenyataan selalu berhubung kait.
Tokoh Datuk Sati dengan para parewanya, ayam aduan bernama Gegar Jalu, menerangkan sudah menjadi budaya sejak saisuak hal-hal yang mau dimurnikan oleh gerakan Orang Asing. Walaupun begitu, ia sangat moderat terhadap hal baru. Lain lagi dengan Datuak Tan Kuniang, yang tak bisa diasak pendapatnya. Diasak layu, dianjak mati! Sementara, Tenku Hudzail dari sisi lain, yang membawa "sesuatu" dari rantau agaknya harus mendapat masalah. Begitulah, awalnya lalu ada romantika adik si Midin, Puti Jalito membuat lini cerita berkelindan dengan dinaungi narasi nagari yang indah. Paninjauan.
Ada masalah teknis pada beberapa bagian bangunan kalimat dan istilah dalam novel ini. Paling tidak sedikit mengganggu. Dan mesti direkomendasi kepada penulis dan penerbit untuk kembali mengoreksi. Walau akan menjadi alasan, sebuah remah-remah sejarah ini sudah masuk wilayah fiksi, hal ini kadang tetap menjadi ganjil dan mustahil di pikiran pembaca di ranah sendiri. Dan itu, sangatlah mungkin bagi pembaca untuk komplain jika melihat kenyataan yang ada dengan diceritakan dalam novel. Atau paling gawat, jika fiksi ini hanya satu-satunya sumber bacaan di masa depan nantinya tentang pertikaian kaum tua dan kaum muda. Maka alamat novel ini menjadi tambo! Apalagi bagi Ranahminang, tempat dimana setting cerita itu berada dan segala sesuatunya sangat banyak yang tahu tentang apa yang diceritakan tersebut.
Badiak, Cenayang (Clairvoyance), adalah dua kata yang paling mungkin "dicurigai" menyaru secara sah dalam novel ini. Alasannya, ini bahasa dari ranah yang lain. Bagi penulis tentulah punya alasan tersendiri, namun "kecurigaan" akan kuat terasa ketika masuk lebih jauh. Dimana, ada komparasi ala penulis dalam cerita ke ranah Jawa. Misalnya, persis Tapa Brata Nyi Camara di Pantai Selatan (hal. 16). Komparasi ini terjadi di beberapa kali, seakan-akan penulis ingin menjelas lebih jauh tentang duduk persoalan. Sementara, persoalan baru muncul di benak pembaca, bagaimana jika pembaca tidak kenal dengan amsal yang jadi bahan komparasi itu? Ini bisa berbahaya. Inilah jika menulis cerita dengan setting sejarah.
Secara menyeluruh novel ini harus diapresiasi tinggi di ranah sendiri. Sebuah novel baru, penulis yang mengaku baru, perlu dibaca bagi siapa saja. Kenapa demikian, sebab penulisnya telah mencerita hal-hal lama dengan posisi dan persepsi yang baru dan segar. Memperkenalkan dua kutub pemikiran yang pernah ada dan mungkin masih "bertempur" di kepala orang-orang di sini. "Di negeri orang-orang pintar," menurut Makmur Hendrik. 
Novel Api Paderi diyakini menjadi sebuah novel yang kuat, karena kekuatannya terletak pada narasi-narasi yang hidup dengan pendekatan kata-kata sastra. Lebih-lebih jika menceritakan suasana Paninjauan yang indah. Dua gunung, malam purnama penuh. Sawah. Angin sepoi-sepoi dan seterusnya. Memancing untuk pengambilan gambar untuk dijadikan film. Dan ini paling tidak, merekomendasikan para sineas untuk mengangkat novel ini ke skenario film. 
Terakhir, dua kutub itu selalu ada sebagai kenyataan dalam kehidupan. Ia laksana dua rel yang diperlukan walau tak bisa dipertemukan. Dan memang tidak perlu dipertemukan demi keseimbangan. Selalu, “pertentangan dan perimbangan” memang ranum (hal.11) jika diusik oleh kepentingan yang menyaru ke dalamnya. Kepentingan tersebut berupa kekuasaan; ekonomi, daerah, juga kadang perempuan! Begitulah, novel ini hadir menjadi bukan sekedar sebuah cerita lepas. Ia memiliki sesuatu yang amat penting diceritakan untuk diambil sebagai i’tibar![]
*Abdullah Khusairi
Dosen Pemikiran Islam  Fakultas Dakwah IAIN Imam Bonjol Padang

Jumat, 23 Desember 2011


Puisi : Muh. Sholihin

Tidak sekali aku titipkan kata, bahwa engkau adalah jingga. Aku menari di bawah cakrawala kemerahan itu, sambil mendeburkan bait-bait rasa untukmu.
Pun kau adalah cakrawala yang memberikan aku mata hati
Telah kau sirami hatiku yang mati, layuh menjadi sesegar tumbuhan perdu ketika embun menyapu kelopaknya. Aku kembali bersemi setelah nestapa merampas keberanianku untuk memunajatkan cinta.

Hatiku riuh dalam setiap peristiwa yang kau gubah bersamaku, dengan jentik-jentik tawa dan tanggis. Dalam setiap tetesan keringat bahagia dan keringat duka, kita sama-sama mentasbihkan diri, hingga detak berhenti tanpa nada, hanya dengkuran cintaku yang tersisa untukmu. Membuai malam, hingga pagi menjelang. Telah aku zikirkan cinta sepanjang malam, untukmu.

Selarik peristiwa denganmu adalah semacam simfoni yang menghentakkan aku masuk ke dalam labirin. Aku tersesat di dalamnya dan tak mampu lagi keluar hingga aku benar-benar mati dalam lorong-lorong hatimu dan aku sendiri tak tahu di mana tepinya. Kau telah menyanderaku, tanpa kau pahami makna dan kau sadari artinya. Hanya aku yang tahu ketika kau sibuk dengan ekstase cintamu yang awal.

Sekali saja,
Buka sedikit hatimu bahwa hidup adalah “kemungkinan-kemungkinan”. Juga cinta. Ia adalah kemungkinan. Setiap jejak cinta yang dijalani adalah kemungkinan; antara ambang pasti dan tidak. Antara sejati dan nisbi. Juga aku. Bersama larik-larik jingga aku nubuwatkan padamu, bahwa aku adalah kemungkinan  pada sebuah titik akhir dan bakal menemanimu sampai lahat, ketika cinta itu menghempaskan ke dalam rongga-rongga gelap, air matamu mengali liang-liang hati; mengoreskan luka dan perih. Pada saat itulah aku bakal menjadi sebuah kemungkinan untukmu. Karena kau adalah akhir, maka cintaku padamu akan mengubah sebuah titik pada sebuah akhir. Dan kita tidak benar-benar tahu. Sama-sama menenggelamkan diri pada absurditas pengharapan.[]

Demangan, 23/12/2011. Pukul. 21.16 PM